The first Israeli military order was issued on June 7, 1967. Military Proclamation 1 announced that Israel had occupied and assumed administrative control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip ‘in the interests of security and public order’. Today there are over 2500 military orders and countless amendments. It wasn’t until the 80’s that a compilation of the orders were put together so the general public could have access to the Occupation’s ‘laws’. Even today it is hard to find the exact details of some of the early orders and texts. I will share a small selection of these orders that control all facets of Palestinian life and apply to only Palestinians- not illegal Israeli settlers.
Military Order #92 and #158 (8/15/67) gives control of all water resources in West Bank and Gaza Strip to Israeli Military (Article 5). Gives Military power to appoint and direct the organization and directors of any “water entity” in the region (Article 5). Regulations that follow then requires a license from the Israeli Military to install or continue to own or operate any type of water control device (pump, well, irrigation equipment, etc.) which the Military can withdraw at any time. Public Notice of decisions in local newspapers no longer required, only posting within offices of the Israeli Military Authority.
Educational & Political Oppression
Israel Attempts to block ALL forms of resistance and attempts to erase our history.
Military Order #854 (7/6/80) puts Israeli Military in control of acceptance and entrance of students, and faculty and staff employment at West Bank Universities. Israeli Military controls licensing of teachers. Students without I.D. Cards must register with the Israeli Military.
Military Order #107 publishes a list of 60 prohibited school textbooks.Publications banned include works on Arabic grammar, histories of the Crusades and works on Arab nationalism.
Military Order #1079 (amends M.O.107) prohibits video and audio work of a political nature. Publishes new list of over 1000 items including all United Nations Resolutions pertaining to Palestine, poetry, novels, etc.
Military Order #101 forbids a gathering of more than 10 people unless the Israeli military receives advance notice with names of all participants.
Military Order #284 (7/26/68) prohibits training or contact with any “hostile organization” which includes any organization with aims to endanger the security of the public, or the IDF, or public order in Israel, or other areas under control of the Israeli Military
Under #284 it is also prohibited to listen to patriotic music and to have flags of any political faction. Oh and ‘hostile organization’ is ANY that rejects the Occupation.
The most absurd orders impacting a large section of the Palestinian population are the regulations levied at farmers.
Military Order #818 establishes how Palestinians can plant decorative flowers.
Military Order #1147 (amendment) requires Palestinians to get permission from the Israeli military to grow onions.
Military Order #1015 (8/27/82) requires Palestinians to get Israeli military permission to plant and grow fruit trees. Permits expire in one year or each June 15th.
Military Order #96 forbids transport or purchase of goods on a donkey.
Military Order #1002 requiring license issued by Israeli Military-appointed authorities to sell seedlings and operate a nursery.
Military Order #134 prohibits Palestinians from operating tractors or other farm machinery made in Israel or imported from any other country.
Military Order #47 (7/9/67) farmers need permission from Israeli Military appointee to transport agricultural goods.
Military Order #297 establishes I.D. Card system which are required by authorities for all business transactions. Gives Israeli Military right to confiscate I.D. Cards for any reason. Israeli Military not required to give receipt when confiscating I.D. Cards.
Military Order #1080 (10/3/83) (amends M.O.180) allows Israeli Military-appointed Village Leagues to carry guns and assume many police duties. (but not Palestinians)
Land Theft Laws
Military Order #811 and #847 allows Jews to purchase land from unwilling non-Jewish (Palestinian) sellers by using a ‘power of attorney.’
Military Order #25 forbids public inspection of land transactions.
Military Order #58 makes land transactions immune to review so long as the transaction was carried out by an Israeli ‘acting in good faith.’
Military Order #58, Article 5 says any land transaction will not be voided even if proven to be invalid.
Military Order #847 declares only Israeli notaries can authenticate signatures.
Military Order #1101(amends M.O.271) in order to apply to the Israeli Military Objections Committee for compensation for damages caused by Israeli Military, person must first get certificate from Area Commander that the Military personnel causing the damage were involved in a “security” operation at the time.
Military Order #25 (6/18/67) requires Israeli Military issued permit for all transactions involving immoveable property.
Military Order #33 (6/26/67) gives Israeli Military control over bank deposits.
Military Order #45 (7/9/67) transfers control of Jordanian Banks, and applications for new banks, over to Israeli-appointed position of “Inspector of Banks”
Military Order #26 (6/18/67) gives Israeli Military control over currency transactions, bills of exchange, Gold transactions.
Military Order #998 requires Palestinians to get Israeli military permission to make a withdrawal from their bank accounts.
Military Order #952 (1/20/82) prohibits residents of West Bank from buying foreign currencies except for importing good and services, or for transfer to a dependent relative living outside the West Bank (not to exceed $3000). Also, residents of the West Bank cannot take more than $3000 with them when they travel outside the West Bank, and no more than $500 of that total can be in cash. Requires all residents who have bank accounts to inform the Israeli Military authorities of the account and it’s balance. Residents who own immoveable property outside the West Bank are required to inform the Israeli Military authorities about the details of that ownership.
Military Order #973 (9/6/82) prohibits all money transfers by individuals unless permission has been obtained from the Israeli Military authorities.
Complete Control of Commerce & Business
Military Order #93 and amendment gives all Palestinian insurance business to the Israeli Insurance Syndicate.
Military Order #128 gives the Israeli military the right to take over any Palestinian business which does not open during regular business hours.
Military Order #363 requires Palestinian mechanics to report to the Israeli military the particulars of any and all cars they repair.
Apartheid Legal Systems
Apartheid is defined by International Criminal Court (ICC), which also lists apartheid as a crime against humanity, as inhumane acts “committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups… with the intention of maintaining that regime.”
Palestinians live under military law and are tried by military tribunals. Illegal settlers are tried under Israeli civilian law and by ‘religious councils’.
Military Order #378 (4/20/70) empowers Military Area Commanders to establish military courts (Article 3) with prosecutors (Article 8), officials and judges(Article 4) all appointed by same Area Commanders. In addition, these courts can diverge from rules of evidence (Article 9) and regular procedures (Article 10), or hold hearings in secret (Article 11) when needed. Anyone disobeying or resisting the court may be immediately sentenced and jailed for up to 2 years (Article 17). If the Area Commander does not approve of the results of a trial, he has the right to cancel its proceedings and call for a new trial in front of a new judge (Article 42.4), or change the sentence (Articles 44 & 50.C.5.b). Allows the court to order the detention of a person for 6 month periods without trial (using an “arrest warrant”). The person can then be kept in jail longer with issuance of a new arrest warrant. Detention without trial is called, “administrative detention” (Articles 78.F & 87). States that the Military Area Commander has the right to restrict any movements and activities of any persons (Article 85) including confinement to a specific area including his home (Article 86). In addition, Area Commanders have the right to restrict or control the use of any vehicle for any purpose (Article 88), have the right to impose curfews on any area (Article 89), and have the right to close off any area or building or business or institution to any person prohibiting either entrance or exit (Article 90 & 91). In addition, the burden of proof is on the defendant to prove his innocence (Article 94).
Military Order #1229 authorizes Israel to hold Palestinians in administrative detention for up to six months without charge or trial. Six-month detentions can be renewed indefinitely.
Military Order #783 (3/25/79) establishes 5 regional “religious councils” in the West Bank to cover all Israeli-controlled lands in the West Bank. Establishes special Settlement Courts in the Israeli Settlements to try criminal cases (replaced by M.O.892, and relevant amendments also in M.O.1058).
Military Order #892 (3/1/80) established additional “Religious Councils” and Municipal Courts for specific Israeli settlements in the West Bank, and states that all are constituted and operated according to regulations issued by the Area Military Commander (Article 2).
Military Order #29 (6/23/67) concerns operations of prisons. Establishes registration system for tracking prisoners while they are in the prison system. Rules that prisoners can be denied access to a lawyer at any time at the discretion of the Israeli Military Commander.
Extending their control ad infinitum
Military Order #224 (1967) declares that the Emergency Regulations installed by the British Mandate Authorities in 1945 are in affect in the West Bank until specifically declared invalid by name. These Regulations gave the Military powers to violate civil rights and international laws because a security emergency had been declared in the West Bank.I will post more military orders at a later date as I think most people can only stomach a few at a time.
Peace and love,